L’expérience de la mobilité

Colloque :

L’Expérience de la mobilité de l’antiquité à nos jours – II Situations de l’entre-deux /

 The Experience of Mobility Across Time – II In-Between Situations

Jeudi 20 juin/ Thursday, June 20

Université Paris II-Panthéon-Assas, Salle des conseils, Aile Soufflot, 2e étage, 12 place du Panthéon, 75005 Paris.

16h00-16h30  Présidente de séance / Chair : Nancy L. Green (EHESS)

16h00  Claudia Moatti (Paris 8, USC, ICM) et Emmanuelle Chevreau (Paris 2), Introduction

16h30-18h30 : Conférences inaugurales

16h30 : Dirk Hoerder (Prof. emeritus Arizona State University, formerly Universität Bremen) : “Voluntary and involuntary migrants: continuous time-space adjustments vs. unsettling ruptures”

I will begin with a discussion of the trajectory of intentional (labor) and unintentional (forced, involuntary migrants, esp. refugees). The trajectory “between” departure and arrival, perhaps with intermediate stopovers, may involve a continuum, a time-space adjustment, an in-between, a slot or a crevice. Refugees experience a maximum of rupture, labor migrants establish as much continuity as possible.

In a second step, I will provide a quick survey as regards rupture – in-between regimes of life – for Greek and Persian migration, stepwise migrations in China Yellow to Yangtze rivers, African exploitative – forced, slave – migrations. I will discuss imposed regimes or options at the point-space-society of arrival.

Third, based on migrant life-writings, I will juxtapose late 19th/early 20th-century labor migrations in a gendered perspective, arguing that how men often experience less “in between” than women.

17h30 :  Hiroshi Motomura (UCLA): “The Many Meanings of ‘In-Between’”

Mobility means change and transition, which in turn means that individuals, families, and even entire communities can find themselves “in-between” one situation and another.  But there are many dimensions of what it means to be “in-between.”  Sometimes, in-between is a transitional status — something that exists between the old and the new.  Or, being in-between can be permanent, or become permanent or indefinite in duration.  This process of creating in-between situations can be transparent, or intentional, or perhaps neither.  For those who create in-betweenness, the purpose can vary widely — to recognize, to conceal, to verify, to avoid, to incentivize, or to discourage, to name just some of the possibilities.  Migration law in the modern era offers many examples to suggest an illuminating taxonomy of the “in-between.”

Cocktail dînatoire

Vendredi 21 juin 2018 /Friday, June 21

Université Paris II-Panthéon-Assas, Salle des conseils, Aile Soufflot, 2e étage, 12 place du Panthéon, 75005 Paris.

9h15-13h00 Session 1. Espaces de l’entre-deux et « territoires de l’attente » / Territories In Waiting

Présidente de séance / Chair : Danièle Lochak (Paris Nanterre, Credof)

9h30    Christelle Fischer Bovet (USC, Classics) : “Organizing military immigrant communities in second-century BCE Egypt: the politeumata and the construction of an in-between ‘space’”

This paper examines the nature of immigration to Egypt in the second century BCE during the still intense competition between the Ptolemies, who ruled over Egypt and other territories in the Eastern Mediterranean since Alexander’s conquest, and the Seleucid kings of Syria-Babylonia. The Ptolemies developed, together with military immigrants from different regions, semi-formal institutions called politeumata in order to facilitate the transitioning moment of the migration and establishment of these immigrants in Egypt. The paper focuses on how it could ease migrants’ relationships with three different groups: the royal administration, fellows of similar origins who came to Egypt generations earlier, and the overall population. After an overview of the available sources, both Greek papyri and inscriptions, for the attested politeumata of the Boeotians, Cretans, Cilicians, Judeans and Idumeans in Hellenistic Egypt, a few cases studies are compared to the best documented politeuma of the Judeans in Herakleopolis, thanks to twenty papyri dated to 144–132 BCE (Cowey and Maresch 2001, see further discussions in e.g. Honigman 2003; Kruse 2010, 2015; Sänger 2013, 2016).  The comparative and trans-periodic approach of this conference allows to shed a new light on what sort of in-between ‘space’ the politeumata created for their members, to assess the advantages of the intermediary condition (or semi-formal status?) they provided to them, and to revisit hypotheses of why, from an ancient Mediterranean perspective, this particular type of semi-formal institution emerged only in Egypt and at this particular time.

10h15 Dominique Valérian (Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne – UMR 8167 Orient & Méditerranée) : « Le fondouk, espace de familiarité dans un monde étranger »

Les fondouks des nations chrétiennes installés dans les ports musulmans, dotés d’un statut d’extraterritorialité garanti par les traités, faisaient figure d’espace réservé, d’enclave chrétienne en terre musulmane. Les voyageurs qui les décrivent y retrouvent un environnement familier. Dans leur expérience du voyage en terre étrangère, leur passage par ces fondouks apparaît comme une parenthèse qui leur permet de retrouver des repères identitaires, qui permettent en retour de mieux souligner la différence entre les pays qu’ils traversent et leur patrie.

Abstract: The fondaci of the Christian nations in the Muslim ports, granted by the peace treaties of a special status of extraterritoriality, appeared as reserved places, and Christian enclaves in Muslim lands. The travelers described them as a familiar environment. In their experience of mobility in a foreign country, their stay in those fondaci appeared as a parenthesis that allowed them to find an identity landmark which, in return, contributed to underline the differences between those countries and their homeland.

11h00-11h20 Pause

11h20  Alex Chase-Levenson (University of Pennsylvania) : “Detain, Confine, and Purify: Nineteenth-Century Quarantine and European Sanitary Citizenship”

The practice of quarantine necessarily involves isolation and segregation. Yet, from the late eighteenth through the mid-nineteenth century, quarantine in Western and Central Europe operated as a universal system. As a Continent-wide sanitary frontier, which detained every person, ship, or thing moving across the Mediterranean until about 1850, quarantine helped generate a sense of pan-European sanitary congruity. The experience of maintaining “reciprocal” sanitary institutions constitutes a form of early European integration proceeding far below the level of elite diplomacy. This paper considers the competing forces of exclusion and connection generated by the Mediterranean quarantine system. It explores the lazaretto (quarantine fortress) as an unusual, extraterritorial space that nevertheless transformed a diverse set of sailors, soldiers, and passengers into medically secure bodies free to move around Europe.

12h05 Emily Ryo (USC, Gould School of Law) “Jailing Immigrant Detainees: A National Study of County Participation in Immigration Detention, 1983-2013”

The U.S. federal government contracts with hundreds of counties across the country to hold immigrant detainees in local jails. This study offers the first national study of this phenomenon using multiple sources of panel data. We address two key questions: What are the temporal and spatial patterns of change in the involvement of counties in immigration detention? What factors predict whether counties will participate in immigration detention? We argue that addressing these questions helps us to better understand the nature of immigration detention and the changing aims of the criminal justice system in the United States.


Déjeuner / Lunch

15h00- 18h30 Session 2. Figures de passeurs et autres intermédiaires : représentations et stéréotypes / Figures of middlemen : representations and stereotypes

Président de séance / Chair : Evelyne Oliel-Grausz (Paris 1)

15h00  Nicole Giannella (Cornell) : “Misdirection and middlemen: From Insecurity to Trust on a Roman Road

On the road of resistance to slavery, the question of trust is paramount though nevertheless largely ignored by modern scholarship on ancient slavery. In my paper I seek to understand how runaway slaves discerned who they could trust on their path out of slavehood: potential sympathizers willing to assist and even shelter them or slave catchers who were actively seeking to return them to their owners.

Slave catchers and slave harborers are a form of middlemen, but have not been a part of the recent focus on other middlemen such as financial negotiators (see e.g. Verboven, Vandorpe, and Chankowski (eds.), Pistoi dia tèn techèn: Bankers, Loans, and Archives in the Ancient World, 2008) and traders (see e.g. Wilson and Flohr (eds.), Urban Craftsmen and Traders in the Roman World, 2016). These economic middlemen operated within the institutional or governmental structures of the market economy and legal system and as such these structures ultimately provided some security between parties (see discussion of historians of trust in Forrest and Haour, “Trust in Long-Distance Relationships, 1000-1600 CE,” in Holmes and Standen (eds.), The Global Middle Ages [Past & Present supplement, 2018]).

Slave catchers and slave harborers instead bear more similarities with a different form of middlemen: interpreters. By their very nature, both slave catchers and slave harborers must cross and even transgress boundaries. The slave catcher nominally operates within the law, but is hated by society for their profession. The slave harborer, on the other hand, is acting both against the law and the social order. Rachel Mairs has argued that the interpreter is viewed as betraying their community by assisting foreign agents (perhaps, she notes, best exemplified in the phrase “traduttore, traditore”) in a manner not unlike the slave harborer (see discussion in “Translator, Traditor: The Interpreter as Traitor in Classical Tradition,” Greece & Rome 58.1 2011: 65, 65n2).

This paper seeks to examine this process of trust-making and breaking by employing Saidiya Hartman’s idea of “critical fabulation” to the runaway slave’s experience (“Venus in Two Acts” Small Axe) as found in Roman legal sources such as the juristic interpretation on the action for a slave made worse (actio servi corrupti, Dig.11.3) and literary sources like Apuleius’ Metamorphoses. The precarity of the slave’s trust-giving is perhaps made most clear by the term for slave catcher, fugitivarius. On account of the amount of fraud involved in the process of slave recapture and rescue, fugitivarius comes to mean, at least in one instance (C.Th. 10.12.1), a concealer of runaway slaves.

15h45 Christine Gadrat-Ouerfelli (LA3M, UMR 7298, Aix-en-Provence) : « Le pèlerin et son guide au XVe siècle, une relation complexe »

 Plusieurs récits de pèlerinage en Terre sainte du XVe siècle mentionnent les guides locaux chargés de favoriser et d’encadrer les déplacements des pèlerins. Ceux-ci en parlent dans les paragraphes consacrés aux conseils qu’ils donnent à leurs éventuels successeurs, leur recommandant souvent de n’accorder qu’une confiance limitée à ces personnages, rarement dépeints sous des jours favorables. Voyageant dans un espace qui ne lui est pas familier, le pèlerin se voit obligé malgré lui de se fier à son guide, seul à pouvoir assurer sa sécurité et son accès aux lieux désirés. Mais on lit aussi, dans certains récits, des passages plus personnels, faisant état d’une relation plus profonde établie entre le pèlerin et son guide.

Abstract : “The pilgrim and his guide, a complex relationship”

Several 15th century pilgrimage narratives to the Holy Land mention the local guides, who had to lead and to make the trips of the pilgrims easier. The latters speak about them in places dedicated to advices for potential pilgrims ; they often recommend not to rely completely to these people, rarely portrayed in a favourable manner. Travelling through an unfamiliar space, the pilgrim is reluctantly obliged to trust his guide, the only one able to keep him safe and to provide him access to the desired place. But we can read, in some narratives, more personnal passages too, showing a more profound relationship between the pilgrim and his guide.

16h30-17h Pause

17h-17h45       Mathieu Grenet (INU Champollion, Albi / UMR 5136 Framespa) : La langue périlleuse : drogmans et interprètes en Méditerranée (XVIIe-XIXe siècle)

Ma contribution s’inscrit dans le prolongement d’une série de travaux récents autour de l’intermédiation linguistique comme expérience de l’entre-deux en Méditerranée moderne et contemporaine (Windler 2002, Moussa 2007, van den Boogert 2009, Rothman 2011). Plutôt qu’à une histoire des pratiques de traduction d’une rive à l’autre de la Méditerranée, je m’intéresserai à la figure du « passeur de langue » comme visage omniprésent, incontournable et familier de la médiation linguistique et culturelle entre « Européens » et « Orientaux » à l’époque moderne. À mi-chemin de la prosopographie et de la sociographie, mon propos cherchera donc à articuler ce « portrait de groupe » à une critique de la construction historique et historiographique de l’interculturalité – depuis les enjeux relatifs à la « professionnalisation de l’intermédiation » jusqu’à la problématique de la « confiance à distance ».

17h45-18h30   Emmanuelle Stein, Présentation de l’association Exilophone, Et Intermède musical / and Musical Interlude

19h30 Dîner

Samedi 22 juin 2018/ Saturday, June 22

Musée de l’immigration, 293 Avenue Daumesnil, 75012 Paris

 9h15-13h00 Session 3. Changement d’identité ou de statut en mobilité / Change of identity or status on the move

Président de séance / Chair : Jean Hébrard (EHESS, John Hopkins)

9h30    Christel Müller (Paris-Ouest, ArScAn) : « Ce que fait la mobilité aux statuts personnels dans le monde grec classique et hellénistique »

Abstract: How did mobility affect personal statuses in Classical and Hellenistic Greece?

Studying mobility from the perspective of the “in-between” situations is not an easy task for ancient Greece, not the least because of the lack of sources describing such experiences, even if one of the found-ing texts of western literature, the story of Odysseus, is one of wandering, nostalgia and progressive trans-formation of identity and status: in contemporary psychology, this kind of entre-deux has even been labelled as the “complex of Odysseus” (Di, Meunier, Moro 2012). Although the Odyssey provides us with a full range of relevant practical cases for today’s subject, I will focus here on historical texts and situations, taken both from literary sources and inscriptions, and study the articulation between mobility and personal status, notably citizenship, in terms of practices, perceptions and representations. How did cities (poleis) anticipate and handle, legally and practically as can be seen in civic documents, mobility situations, for foreigners as for their own citizens (the latter while abroad)? How did migrants of any kind (soldiers, travellers, exiled people) deal with their own “on the move” trajectory and how did they feel about it, a point largely illuminated by Xenophon’ Anabasis and the story of the Ten-Thousand? Finally, how did Greek societies perceive the people moving and wandering, a vast theme that can be approached through the case of prostitutes, some of them being free to move from one town to another and forge themselves a new identity, such as Demosthenes’ Neaira the Corinthian slave who became a quasi-citizen in Athens?

10h15 Victor Simon (Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, UFR Droit, CEJESCO) : « Légiférer contre l’acculturation : la mobilité des marchands à l’épreuve des représentations de l’Orient ottoman »

Entre le XVIe et le XVIIIe siècle, la France entretient d’importants réseaux commerciaux en Méditerranée orientale, avec l’Empire ottoman. Dans le sillage de l’octroi des capitulations turques, de nombreux marchands français fondent ainsi des établissements dans les échelles du Levant et de Barbarie. Dès lors, ces commerçants se confrontent quotidiennement à l’altérité ottomane et tissent de complexes relations avec les populations turques, arabes, juives, arméniennes ou grecques. Craignant le dévoiement de ses nationaux qui vivent « parmy les vices et les plaisirs naturels aux orientaux », la monarchie développe alors une abondante législation afin de lutter contre l’acculturation et d’attacher les personnes et les capitaux au royaume.

Abstract: Between the 16th and 18th centuries, France maintains important trading networks in eastern Mediterranean, with Ottoman Empire. In the wake of the granting of Turkish capitulations, many French merchants start businesses in the cities of the near East and north Africa. From then on, these traders are confronted daily with the Ottoman world, and weave complex relationships with Turkish, Arab, Jewish, Armenian or Greek populations. Fearing the corruption of its nationals who live among “the vices and natural pleasures of the Orientals”, the monarchy develops an abundant legislation against acculturation, for the purpose of tying people and investments to the kingdom.

11h00-11h20 Pause

11h20 Ariela Gross (USC, Gould School of Law) et Martha Jones (Johns Hopkins, History) : “The precarity of status of free people of color on the move in antebellum Maryland, Virginia, and Louisiana”

In antebellum Maryland, Virginia, and Louisiana, enslaved people could become “free” through manumission or self-purchase, but increasingly in the mid-nineteenth century, states restricted their freedom by requiring permits to travel, or sought to “remove” them from the state, whether through broad efforts at “colonization” or through requirements that freed people leave the state within months of their emancipation. African Americans’ claims to full citizenship and to true freedom thus centered on challenging restrictions on their mobility and efforts to deport them from their homeland. African American leaders spoke out against removal through “colonization,” while both “anti-slavery” and “pro-slavery” white citizens increasingly agreed on the necessity of removal. Our research focuses on the ways in which free African Americans dealt with the precarity of their “in between” status, from applying for travel permits, and speaking out against colonization, to petitioning the legislature to remain at home after emancipation, to petitioning for re-enslavement when that appeared necessary to avoid removal.

12h05 Anouche Kunth, CNRS (IRIS-EHESS) : « A l’épreuve de l’incertitude. Réfugiés : arméniens en route et en déroute, au lendemain de la Première Guerre mondiale »

Il est bien des manières de convoquer l’expérience pour mettre en perspective ce que la mobilité fait aux identités et aux statuts. Le cas des réfugiés arméniens invite à penser ces transformations en lien avec un rapport à l’Etat. Rapport lui-même changeant, quoique toujours en tension, qu’il s’agira d’appréhender dans une double perspective : à la fois dans l’horizontalité des routes empruntées au lendemain de la Première Guerre mondiale, et dans la verticalité des ruptures imposées aux Arméniens par des politiques d’exclusion et/ou de relégation. Menée au croisement de ces deux plans, la réflexion s’efforcera de rendre intelligible la part d’incertitude sous-jacente à leurs parcours, qui présentent la particularité de s’être déroulés dans une configuration de chaos, entre guerre et paix, génocide et révolution, arbitrages territoriaux et redéfinition des régimes de citoyenneté. Comment tracer son chemin en un contexte politique si troublé, comment dire qui l’on est, jouer de son rang social, prouver ou dissimuler sa nationalité face au danger ? Quelle expérience de l’entre-deux font ensuite ceux que le nouveau pouvoir chasse, puis déchoit systématiquement de leurs droits civiques et nationaux, laissant à des États tiers la responsabilité de leur attribuer un statut de substitution ? L’analyse de ces vécus migratoires envisagera, in fine, le contrepoint radical (et néanmoins exceptionnel) de leur mise à l’arrêt, c’est-à-dire de leur placement en asile psychiatrique : les registres des malades internés d’office à Marseille durant l’entre-deux-guerres donnent à penser les retombées les plus obscures d’une mobilité devenue errance, détresse, déliaison, hantée parfois par l’expérience d’une rencontre passée avec la mort de masse.

Abstract: “Uprooted and routed: the trial by incertitude of Armenian refugees in the wake of the Great War.”

There are many ways in which experience can be called upon to testify the impact of mobility on identities and statuses. In the case of the Armenian refugees, these transformations are best addressed from the point of the view of state-appurtenance. The relation between state and individual is an ever-evolving, dynamic, one, which, in this instance, requires to be observed both from the “horizontal” perspective of the dispersion along the routes after the Great War and from the “vertical” perspective of the severing of the Armenians from their former political and legal identities by the enactment of various policies of exclusion and relegation. At the juncture of these two dynamics, the paper will endeavor to shed light on the incertitude underlying individual itineraries whose logic mirrors the chaos of the transitional period when war and peace, genocide and revolution, territorial arbitrations and reassessment of citizenship, slowly settled into a new order. How could one plan and tread his path in this political turmoil? How could one define himself, call upon his former social status, prove or conceal his nationality in the face of ever-changing threats? How did these refugees cope with the unsettling experience of an essentially negative definition of their identity, as they moved from their former legal status and national identity, which new polities had deprived them of, towards a substitute offered by third countries? In fine, the analysis will address a radical departure from these complete statutory moults by presenting some exceptional cases of psychiatric confinements documenting abortive process of self-redefinition. Registers of compulsory confinement in Marseille in the interwar years offer the opportunity to address the psychic fall-out of compulsory travel deteriorating into a roaming marked by anguish, the unravelling of previous certitudes, with memories of mass death lurking at the back of the mind.

Déjeuner / Lunch

Visite du musée / Visit of the Museum

14h30- 18h30 Session 4. Les effets cognitifs de la mobilité / The Cognitive Effects of Mobility

Présidente de séance / Chair : Sam Erman (USC, Gould School of Law)

14h30  Greg Thalmann (USC, Classics) : “The effects of displacement: Ancient reflections”

This paper discusses some of the psychological and emotional effects of mobility in the ancient Greek world as they are conveyed in poetry. It uses as examples some representative texts in different genres and from three periods of Greek culture : archaic epic, tragedy of the fifth century BCE, and Hellenistic epigram. The Odyssey shows the involuntary wandering of men displaced by the need to fight a war, and through Odysseus’s narrative of his journey it methodically explores alternatives to Greek political and cultural forms that were taking shape when the poem was composed. In Odysseus’s struggle to regain his position at home it raises the question of whether one can fit back into peacetime life after long experience of violence. Euripides’ Phoenician Women and Trojan Women represent the effects of involuntary displacement caused by exile and enslavement. Hellenistic epigram reflects mobility under the Ptolemaic empire : merchants lost at sea, and the centripetal movement of goods and cultural capital into Alexandria. In different ways conditioned by their period and genre, all this poetry raises questions about both voluntary and enforced displacement such as, what is the relation between one’s origin and destination ? What are the risks of being out of place ? What would it mean to be in place, to belong ? Can one belong in a new place ? What does being out of place mean for one’s sense of self and one’s relations to others ?

15h15 Camille Rouxpetel (TEMOS-université d’Angers) : « Mobilités et constructions de l’altérité dans les récits de pèlerinage latins (Syrie, Palestine, Égypte, XIVe siècle) »

Les pèlerins latins qui partent pour la Syrie, la Palestine ou l’Égypte, partent à la recherche des traces tangibles de leur croyance spirituelle. Ils inventent alors un espace-temps original, à la fois concret et symbolique, la Terre sainte. Le voyage, devenu pèlerinage, est ainsi porteur d’une forte signification théologique et spirituelle sous-tendue par des représentations communes à ceux qui l’entreprennent. Or, le voyage est aussi dépaysement, un dépaysement auquel concourt le contexte de la reprise des pèlerinages dans les années 1320-1330, alors que le bilād al-Šām est entièrement placé sous souveraineté mamelouke depuis la conquête d’Acre par le sultan al-Ašraf Ḫalīl le 28 mai 1291.

Les pèlerins se dirigent certes vers un espace familier et construit comme tel – la Terre sainte – figée aux temps évangéliques, mais aussi vers l’inconnu, vers l’Orient, un Orient retourné à l’Islam, où ils découvrent des hommes à la fois semblables parce que chrétiens et dissemblables parce qu’orientaux. Comment réagissent les pèlerins face à la dissonance, à l’insolite ? Comment leur curiosité se dégage-t-elle progressivement de la gangue de leurs représentations et de leurs attentes, laissant apparaître un monde insoupçonné ? Quel rôle le déplacement en lui-même joue-t-il dans les constructions de l’altérité, qu’il s’agisse du voyage de départ ou de retour, objets de longues descriptions, ou des déplacements d’un site biblique à un autre, décrites avec un soin similaire ?

Abstract: Mobilities and constructions of otherness in Latin pilgrimage writings (Syria, Palestine, Egypt, 14th century)

Latin pilgrims who went to Syria, Palestine or Egypt, went in search of tangible traces of their spiritual belief. They then invented an original space-time, both concrete and symbolic, the Holy Land. The journey, which became a pilgrimage, thus carried a strong theological and spiritual significance underpinned by representations common to those who undertook it. However, the trip was also a change of scenery, a change of scenery that was supported by the context of the resumption of pilgrimages in the 1320-1330s, when bilād al-Šām was entirely under Mamluk sovereignty since the conquest of Acre by Sultan al-Ašraf Ḫalīl on 28 May 1291.

Pilgrims were certainly heading for a familiar space and built as such – the Holy Land – fixed in evangelical times, but also towards the unknown, towards the East, an East returned to Islam, where they discovered men who were both similar because they were Christians and dissimilar because they were oriental. How did the pilgrims react to the dissonance, to the unusual? How did their curiosity gradually emerge from their representations and expectations, revealing an unsuspected world? What role did displacement itself play in the construction of otherness, whether it was the journey of departure or return, objects of long descriptions, or the movements from one biblical site to another, described with similar care?

16h00-16h20 Pause

16h20  Yann Dejugnat (Université Bordeaux Montaigne – Institut Ausonius (UMR 5607 CNRS) : « Le voyageur des Arabes et des Persans. Une approche cognitive de la riḥla d’Ibn Baṭṭūṭa (1325-1355) »

Le Marocain Ibn Baṭṭūṭa apparaît souvent comme le représentant emblématique de la pratique de la rila. Ce voyage vers l’Orient pouvait conduire les juristes et les savants les plus brillants à la richesse et à la reconnaissance dans les centres de l’Islam. Pour des profils plus modestes, comme Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, ce voyage s’accompagnait d’une forte précarité et d’une insertion plutôt par les marges, à peine islamisées, ignorant l’arabe et où les pouvoirs islamiques avaient besoin d’administrateurs et de juristes. Cette expérience migratoire lui a permis d’acquérir un savoir neuf sur ces nouveaux mondes de l’Islam, étendus de l’Anatolie jusqu’à l’Inde, nés de la seconde expansion de l’Islam et du choc mongol. Plus profondément, elle l’amena à s’approprier des façons de penser et se représenter le monde, empruntées à la culture persane, désormais hégémonique à l’est de l’Euphrate. A son retour au Maghreb, la mise en récit de son voyage par Ibn Juzayy, un lettré andalou au service du sultanat mérinide, attaché à la culture politique arabe, révéla les tensions entre ces deux visions, arabe et persane, du monde.

17h05  Ilsen About (Centre Georg Simmel, CNRS-EHESS) et Adèle Sutre (CRH, EHESS) : « Circulations raisonnées. Consciences et discours du voyage dans les sociétés romani-tsiganes, 19e-20e siècles »

Entre les années 1880 et 1930, des groupes familiaux de culture romani établissent des trajectoires transcontinentales de circulation, de la Russie vers l’Europe et les Nouveaux Mondes. Qualifiés habituellement de “Tsiganes” par les publics et les autorités qu’ils rencontrent, ils constituent une mobilité remarquable qui suit les routes migratoires conventionnelles tout en composant des stratégies originales de circulation et des manières spécifiques de voyager. Face aux agents placés aux frontières et à l’occasion de rencontres avec des compagnons de route occasionnels ou des observateurs plus ou moins avertis, certains d’entre eux évoquent les composantes d’un habitus singulier de l’itinérance. Les limites et les distances de l’espace géographique se recomposent au gré des opportunités économiques. Les obligations et les contraintes du voyage intègrent une négociation au long cours qui implique une constante adaptation aux règles du contrôle. Suivant des schémas qui restent à analyser, ils établissent des trajectoires qui suivent des repères physiques et géographiques. Ils adaptent aussi leurs trajectoires au réseau sans cesse renouvelé d’intermédiaires, de relais et de passeurs qui maillent un territoire immense parcouru en suivant une ligne de points de passage.

Face aux résistances parfois et tout au long de trajectoires qui suivent des routes aux dimensions mondiales, ces groupes romani élaborent ainsi des systèmes cognitifs de déplacement adaptés à une condition à part. A la fois parfaitement intégrés aux régimes contemporains de la mobilité, ils jouent d’une identité souvent considérée avec méfiance et adaptent leur pratique du paraître lorsque les conditions l’imposent. Le mystère de stratégies réputées impénétrables a souvent été l’objet de récits fantasmatiques : l’usage de références imaginaires et la pratique d’un vocabulaire à part ne peuvent cependant résumer les réussites commerciales et les ancrages sociaux qui manifestent un savoir-faire éprouvé dans l’art du voyage.

Asbtract: “Reflexive circulations. Consciousness and discourses of traveling in Romani-Gypsy societies, 19th-20th centuries”

 Between the 1880s and 1930s, family groups of Romani culture established transcontinental trajectories of movement from Russia to Europe and the New World. Usually referred to as “Gypsies” by the public and the authorities they meet, they elaborate a remarkable mobility that follows conventional migratory routes while composing original circulation strategies and specific ways of traveling. Faced with agents at the borders and during meetings with occasional companions or more or less aware observers, some of them evoke the components of a singular habitus of itinerant peddling. The limits and distances of geographical space are recomposed according to economic opportunities. The obligations and constraints of travel include a long-term negotiation which implies a constant adaptation to the rules of control. Following patterns that remain to be analyzed, they establish trajectories that follow physical and geographical landmarks. They also adapt their trajectories to the ever-changing network of intermediaries, relays and smugglers who weave a huge territory run by following a line of crossing points.

Facing with resistance sometimes and along paths that follow roads with global dimensions, these Romani groups elaborate cognitive systems of displacement adapted to a condition apart. At the same time perfectly integrated with the contemporary regimes of the mobility, they play with an identity often considered with apprehension and adapt their practice of appearing when the conditions impose it. The mystery of strategies deemed impenetrable has often been the subject of fantasy narratives: the use of imaginary references and the practice of a separate vocabulary, however, cannot summarize the commercial successes and social implementation that manifest a proven expertise in the art of traveling.

17h50-18h30 Table ronde conclusive / Final discussion

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